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The rails are divided into railway rails, light rails, conductive rails, and crane rails according to Chinese national standards and the standards of the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry.
(1) Railway rails
Low alloy steel rails have been developed on the basis of carbon steel rails. High-carbon low-alloy steel rails have higher strength than carbon rails, and have better wear resistance, pressure resistance, brittle fracture resistance, and fatigue fracture resistance. Railway rails use 38, 43, 50, 60, 75 kg/m. In the production of rails, special attention should be paid to preventing the occurrence of white spots.
(2) Light Rail
Mainly used in mining and forestry, its varieties are 5,8,11,15,18,24 kg/m. The light rail is mainly made of carbon steel, and a small part is made of low alloy steel. Light rails used in mines, underground mines, and forest areas require corrosion resistance. For this purpose, appropriate amounts of alloy elements such as copper, chromium, phosphorus, and vanadium are added to the steel.
(3) Conductor rails
For railroad conductors in underground railways, good electrical conductivity is required, ie, resistivity at 15°C is less than 0.125μΩ.m. It is made of high-quality low-carbon aluminum killed steel.
(4) Crane Rails
The special section rails used for various crane rails have the same chemical composition and manufacturing process as the railway rails. Variety of QU70, QU80, QUl00, QUl20, etc.