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Wavy wear refers to wavy uneven wear on the top surface of the rail, which is essentially undulating crushing. Corrugation will cause a high degree of wheel-rail dynamics, accelerate the damage of locomotives and rail components, increase the cost of maintenance; In addition, the severe vibration of the train will make passengers uncomfortable, and in serious cases, it will also threaten traffic safety; wave grinding is also noise origin of. On some of China's cargo shipping lines, there has been serious wave grinding. Its development speed is faster than that of side grinding, which is the main reason for rail change.
Wave mill can be divided into short wave (or wave) and long wave (or wave). The corrugation is a periodic irregularity with a wavelength of about 50 to 100 mm and a wave amplitude of 0.1 to 0.4 mm; a long wave is a periodic irregularity with a wavelength of 100 mm or more and 3000 mm or less and an amplitude of less than 2 mm.
Corrugation mainly occurs on heavy-duty transportation lines, especially on coal transportation and mining lines. It also occurs in varying degrees on high-speed and high-speed passenger lines, and is also common on urban subways. On railways with higher train speeds, ripple wear occurs mainly and occurs mainly in straight and braking sections. Wave wear occurs mainly on heavy-duty transport lines with lower speeds, and generally occurs in curved sections. There are many factors influencing the occurrence and development of rail corrugation, involving various aspects such as the material of the rail, the conditions of the line and the vehicle. All countries in the world are committed to theoretical research on the causes of wear of rail waveforms. There are dozens of theories about the cause of wave grinding, which can be roughly divided into two categories: the dynamic cause theory and the non-dynamic cause theory. In general, the dynamic effect is the external cause of the formation of rail corrugation, and the material properties of the rail are the internal causes of corrugation. In fact, it is very difficult to sum up all the causes of rail corrugation by just one aspect of the analysis. It is necessary to use vehicles and orbits as a system to study the formation of multiple vibrations, and to carry out multi-disciplinary and multi-disciplinary studies as a whole. Only then can we grasp the whole picture of the cause of wave grinding.
Polishing rails is now the most effective measure to eliminate wave grinding. In addition there are the following measures to mitigate the development of wave grinding: eliminate the rail joints by continuous welding and improve the smoothness of the track; improve the use of high-strength wear-resistant steel rails, improve the quality of heat treatment process, eliminate the residual stress of the rail; improve the quality of the track , improve the elasticity of the track, and make the vertical and horizontal elasticity uniform; keep the direction of the curve round, set the height at a reasonable level, apply the oil on the outer rail while working; the wheel-rail system should have enough resistance, etc.